Chapter 5.3

Analysis of Finite M/G/1-S Waiting Queue using Power Method

(c) Tobias Hossfeld (Aug 2021)

This script and the figures are part of the following book. The book is to be cited whenever the script is used (copyright CC BY-SA 4.0):
Tran-Gia, P. & Hossfeld, T. (2021). Performance Modeling and Analysis of Communication Networks - A Lecture Note. Würzburg University Press.

A finite capacity queue is analyzed. Arrivals follow a Poisson process with rate $\lambda$, i.e. $A \sim Exp(\lambda)$. The service times follow a general continuous distribution $B$ with cumulative distribution function $B(t)$ and probability density function $b(t)$. The system has one service unit. The waiting room is limited and there are $S$ waiting places in total. Hence, the total system capacity is $S+1$ and finite.

For the analysis of the steady state distributions, the method of embedded Markov chain is used. The Markov chain is embedded immediately after the departure of a customer. The state probabilities at the embedding times are derived with the power method by iteratively computing the state probabilities $X_n$ at the $n$-th embedding time instant and using the transition probability matrix $\mathcal{P}$. The vector $X_n = \left(x_n(0), x_n(1), \dots, x_n(S)\right)$ represents the state probabilities at the $n$-th embedding time instant. The system is initialized with a start condition $X_0$, e.g., the empty system is $X_0 = (1, 0, \dots, 0)$. Then, the iteration is compactly denoted as $X_{n+1} = X_n \cdot \mathcal{P}$. The power method iterates as long as a stop condition is not fulfilled, $f(X_n, X{n+1})<\epsilon$. A simple, but in practice often sufficiently accurate stop condition is the difference of the means, $f(X_n, X_{n+1}) = \left|E[X_{n}]-E[X_{n+1}]\right|<\epsilon$.

Transition probability matrix $\mathcal{P}$

The transition probability matrix $\mathcal{P}$ is the key for the analysis using the power method. The finite transition matrix contains the elements $p_{i,j}$ with $i,j = 0,1, \dots S$. Thereby, $p_{ij}$ denotes the transition probabilities for this Markov chain at the embedded time instants.

$ p_{ij}=P(X_{n+1}=j|X_n=i) $

The transition probabilities depend on the distribution $\Gamma$ of the number of jobs arriving durch a service time of length $B$. The $p_{ij}$ will be derived in the next paragraph. It is worth to mention that the maximum number of jobs in the system is $S$ (and not $S+1$), since the embedding time instants are immediately after a departure of a job.

$ \mathcal{P} = \{ p_{ij} \} = \left(\begin{array}{lllll} \gamma(0) & \gamma(1) & \gamma(2) & \cdots & 1-\sum_{i=0}^{S-1} \gamma(i) \\ \gamma(0) & \gamma(1) & \gamma(2) & \cdots & 1-\sum_{i=0}^{S-1} \gamma(i) \\ 0 & \gamma(0) & \gamma(1) & \cdots & 1-\sum_{i=0}^{S-2} \gamma(i) \\ 0 & 0 & \gamma(0) & \cdots & 1-\sum_{i=0}^{S-3} \gamma(i) \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & \cdots & \gamma(0) & 1-\gamma(0) \\ \end{array}\right) $

Number of arrivals during service time

The random variable $\Gamma$ reflects the number of arrivals during a single service time $B$. The probability is $\gamma(i)=P(\Gamma=i)$ for $i=0,1,\dots$ with the PDF $b(t)$ of the service time.

$ \gamma(i) = \int_0^\infty \frac{e^{-\lambda t}(\lambda t)^i}{i!}b(t) dt $

We derive the probability $\gamma(i)$ numerically using scipy.integrate. The PDF of the service time $b(t)=\mu e^{-\mu t}$ (for which we know exact analytical solutions).

Definition of the transition matrix

Now, the transition probability matrix $\mathcal{P}$ can be instantiated. It happens easily that errors are introduced when defining the matrix. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to double check the correct definition and calculation of the elements of the matrix. The matrix is printed and visualized.

Implementation of the Power Method

The system is initialized with an empty system through proper definition of $X_0$. Then, the iteration is continued until a certail stop condition is fulfilled. A typical example is the difference of means: $\left|E[X_{n+1}] - E[X_{n}] \, \right| < \epsilon$.

The implemenation of the power method is straightforward. It requires the start condition $X_0$ and the transition matrix $\mathcal{P}$ as well as a stopping condition.

Computing the system state distribution as Eigenvector of the transition probability matrix

Python also offers numerical methods to compute the Eigenvector. In the steady state, the probability distribution of the system state $X$ is the Eigenvector of the transition probability matrix $\mathcal{P}$ with respect to the Eigenvalue 1.

$ X = X \cdot \mathcal{P}$

State distribution at arbitrary time instants

The embedding time instants are immediately after departure of customers. The derivation of the steady state distribution at arbitrary time instants is described in Shortle et al. (2018).

$x^*(i) = \frac{x(i)}{x(0)+\rho} \text{ with } \rho={\lambda}E[B]$

Shortle, John F.; Thompson, James M.; Gross, Donald; Harris, Carl M.. Fundamentals of Queueing Theory (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics). Wiley. (2018)