Chapter 7.6

Overload Control Model

(c) Tobias Hossfeld (Aug 2021)

This script and the figures are part of the following book. The book is to be cited whenever the script is used (copyright CC BY-SA 4.0):
Tran-Gia, P. & Hossfeld, T. (2021). Performance Modeling and Analysis of Communication Networks - A Lecture Note. Würzburg University Press.

The basic model of the overload control strategy considered in this chapter is of type (discrete-time) GI/GI/1 with a feedback-controlled input process. The analysis is done with an discrete-time algorithm and provides a generally applicable exact calculation algorithm. The algorithm provided to calculate system characteristics (e.g. customer blocking probability) is developed to estimate the performance of the overload control strategy. The results obtained show system behavior under stationary and non-stationary traffic conditions.

The following symbols and random variables are used:

The main mechanism of the overload control strategy discussed is based on the following workload-driven customer acceptance scheme:

Chapter 7.6 derives a recursive relation to compute the workload at arrival times of customers.

$ \displaystyle u_{n+1}(k) = \pi_0\left[\sigma^{L}[u_n(k)]*b_n(k)*a_n(-k) \right] + \pi_0\left[\sigma_{L}[u_n(k)]*a_n(-k) \right] \\ = \pi_0\left[\left(\sigma^{L}[u_n(k)]*b_n(k) +\sigma_{L}[u_n(k)] \right) *a_n(-k) \right] $

In terms of random variables, we express this as follows.

$ \displaystyle U_{n+1} = \begin{cases} \max(U_{n,0}+B_n-A_n,0) & \text{with probability} \; P(U_n<L) \\ \max(U_{n,1}-A_n,0) & \text{with probability} \; P(U_n\geq L) \end{cases} $

Overload Situations

First, consider a sudden increase of the load at $n_1=40$ which decreases over time until $n_2=75$ (labeled 'peak'). This may be caused by some external events like flash-crowd events. Second, consider a constant overload situation between $n_1=40$ and $n_2=75$ (labeled 'constant'). The third overload situation is a triangular load curve. In all three overload situations, the average load $\bar{\rho}$ is chosen to be the same -- which is $\bar{\rho}=\sum_{n={n_1}}^{n_2} \rho_n =1.569$ in this numerical example. Before ($n<n_1$) and after ($n\geq n_2$) the overload situation, the regular load is $\rho^*=0.75$.

Implementation of Nonstationary Analysis

The recursive relation is now implemented with the module DiscreteTimeAnalysis. The unfinished work for an arriving customer represents the waiting time.

$ \displaystyle u_{n+1}(k) = \pi_0\left[\sigma^{L}[u_n(k)]*b_n(k)*a_n(-k) \right] + \pi_0\left[\sigma_{L}[u_n(k)]*a_n(-k) \right] \\ = \pi_0\left[\left(\sigma^{L}[u_n(k)]*b_n(k) +\sigma_{L}[u_n(k)] \right) *a_n(-k) \right] $

Play with the treshold parameter $L$ to see its impact on the results!